• European project MAXIBONE


Despite the satisfactory results obtained with autologous bone grafts, which is the gold standard, donor site morbidity is clearly associated with the graft harvest site. Alternatively to bone grafts, bone substitutes of animal, human or synthetic origin may be used alone to reconstruct small defects (often smaller than a few milliliters), but they have been found to be less effective when large areas of bone loss need to be repaired. The search for alternative solutions has resulted in several teams developing tissue engineering procedures which combine synthetic bone substitutes with autologous mesenchymal stem cells expanded in culture<